Disclaimer: this is an automatic aggregator which pulls feeds and comments from many blogs of contributors that have contributed to the Mono project. The contents of these blog entries do not necessarily reflect Xamarin's position.

October 13

What Are The Two Dual Operating Systems Of Organization Agility?

Organization agility, or what is sometimes referred to as business agility, is the capacity of an organization to change and adapt to deliver what its customer base requires. Although organization agility has many different definitions, two categories describe what it means for an organization to be agile: dual operating systems and multiple senses.

Dual operating systems are what separates business agility from other types of organizational change. It allows the organization to simultaneously pursue two different strategies to achieve what it needs to accomplish. However, before looking at dual operating systems, it is essential to establish what multiple senses mean.

A sense is what an organization uses to get feedback on what it is currently doing, what it is currently experiencing, what the next steps are, what has worked in the past and what hasn’t. When an organization knows what its senses are and the gaps between them, it will interpret these different stimuli better. It can determine how it should respond or decide on a new strategy.

An example of what multiple senses are would be what individuals have. Individuals will have different stimuli that they can interpret to move closer or further away from their goal. For instance, an individual has what they see, what they hear, what their gut feeling is telling them, what the room’s temperature is, and so on.

Organizations work the same way in that what is happening inside their industry, what the market is telling them, and what they may feel in response to what they are seeing are essential for deciding what course of action they should pursue. Each stimulus provides the organization with information on what may or may not work to meet its needs and accomplish what is essential.

Dual operating systems allow the organization to take what it has been able to gather from what its senses tell it and respond accordingly by choosing between two different strategies or courses of action that might achieve what its needs are. It comes down to an either/or decision, but what precisely dual operating systems mean will depend on what the organization needs to achieve.

In this context, dual operating systems mean either/or decision-making. In other words, what this means is that an organization can take what its senses tell it; what has worked in the past may be best, or what they see happening in their industry following a specific course of action may be what works for them. They can essentially choose what they want without having to immediately decide what the best course of action is right now.

Organizations that have what is referred to as dual operating systems can operate two different ways at once, meaning that what they do one will not always indicate what they will do in another circumstance. For example, what an organization does when facing what may be considered a problem could be what they do to solve what may be thought of as another problem and vice versa.

Organization agility, or what is sometimes referred to as business agility, is the capacity of an organization to change and adapt to deliver what its customer base requires. It allows an organization to do what it needs to succeed. Despite its environment, the market, and what may be happening around them.

What distinguishes business agility from organizational change is that it refers to the organization’s strategy or whether they should modify their existing one or pursue what may be considered a completely different path in order what they want to achieve.

An organization can have what is referred to as transactional agility, which means that it can adjust what the market wants and what it needs relatively quickly. It also has what is known as directional agility, which refers to how well the organization moves in response to what its strategy requires of them.

Finally, what an organization can do to achieve what it needs when dealing with what may be considered a problem or what they see as a crisis response capacity is referred to what organizational resilience.

The post What Are The Two Dual Operating Systems Of Organization Agility? appeared first on salvaste's blog.

What Are The Two Dual Operating Systems Of Organization Agility?

Organization agility, or what is sometimes referred to as business agility, is the capacity of an organization to change and adapt to deliver what its customer base requires. Although organization agility has many different definitions, two categories describe what it means for an organization to be agile: dual operating systems and multiple senses.

Dual operating systems are what separates business agility from other types of organizational change. It allows the organization to simultaneously pursue two different strategies to achieve what it needs to accomplish. However, before looking at dual operating systems, it is essential to establish what multiple senses mean.

A sense is what an organization uses to get feedback on what it is currently doing, what it is currently experiencing, what the next steps are, what has worked in the past and what hasn’t. When an organization knows what its senses are and the gaps between them, it will interpret these different stimuli better. It can determine how it should respond or decide on a new strategy.

An example of what multiple senses are would be what individuals have. Individuals will have different stimuli that they can interpret to move closer or further away from their goal. For instance, an individual has what they see, what they hear, what their gut feeling is telling them, what the room’s temperature is, and so on.

Organizations work the same way in that what is happening inside their industry, what the market is telling them, and what they may feel in response to what they are seeing are essential for deciding what course of action they should pursue. Each stimulus provides the organization with information on what may or may not work to meet its needs and accomplish what is essential.

Dual operating systems allow the organization to take what it has been able to gather from what its senses tell it and respond accordingly by choosing between two different strategies or courses of action that might achieve what its needs are. It comes down to an either/or decision, but what precisely dual operating systems mean will depend on what the organization needs to achieve.

In this context, dual operating systems mean either/or decision-making. In other words, what this means is that an organization can take what its senses tell it; what has worked in the past may be best, or what they see happening in their industry following a specific course of action may be what works for them. They can essentially choose what they want without having to immediately decide what the best course of action is right now.

Organizations that have what is referred to as dual operating systems can operate two different ways at once, meaning that what they do one will not always indicate what they will do in another circumstance. For example, what an organization does when facing what may be considered a problem could be what they do to solve what may be thought of as another problem and vice versa.

Organization agility, or what is sometimes referred to as business agility, is the capacity of an organization to change and adapt to deliver what its customer base requires. It allows an organization to do what it needs to succeed. Despite its environment, the market, and what may be happening around them.

What distinguishes business agility from organizational change is that it refers to the organization’s strategy or whether they should modify their existing one or pursue what may be considered a completely different path in order what they want to achieve.

An organization can have what is referred to as transactional agility, which means that it can adjust what the market wants and what it needs relatively quickly. It also has what is known as directional agility, which refers to how well the organization moves in response to what its strategy requires of them.

Finally, what an organization can do to achieve what it needs when dealing with what may be considered a problem or what they see as a crisis response capacity is referred to what organizational resilience.

The post What Are The Two Dual Operating Systems Of Organization Agility? appeared first on salvaste's blog.

October 12

A New Operating System For An Existing Machine

A team at the University of Cambridge Computer Lab has successfully installed a new operating system on a machine that would otherwise use a different one. The work is part of a project to find novel ways to deploy software onto the world’s existing infrastructure without disrupting it.

The use of virtual machines means that applications can be delivered with almost no overhead, which is a boon to both the system administrators and the end-users. The team at Cambridge has gone a step further by creating a virtual machine that can run a virtual machine, all on an actual device.

“The idea here is that you could have a set of machines say in a data center,” explains supervisor Dr. William Hurley. “And then a whole different set of machines that are used to, say, do a software update on all the hosts in the data center.”

“The key idea is that you can boot a new operating system with a new kernel for a machine which already has an existing OS on it. No hardware modification is required; you just have a hypervisor that allows a runtime environment – a guest – to run a different OS. The idea is a little bit like running a program on a virtual machine, but a VM within a VM.”

The work builds on a technique presented at the 2007 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy by Loyola Marymount University’s Dr. Stefan Savage. A system was introduced that allowed users to repeatedly switch between a default OS and a secondary OS running in a virtual machine.

The Cambridge team aims to develop the technique further by applying it to existing infrastructure rather than laboratory conditions while dropping the requirement for a secondary hypervisor on top of the primary one.

“We need a runtime environment to run a guest, and this is a sort of a cross between a hypervisor and a virtual machine monitor,” explains Hurley. “This runs on the bare metal hardware, with no bootloader or other components in the primary boot path. A common hypervisor requires a separate kernel to be booted, but a virtual machine monitor can run a guest within the existing OS.”

“It’s a bit like a very lightweight hypervisor. The basic idea is you would be able to do a software update on a running operating system without actually stopping that operating system. So it has some useful applications there, where you don’t want to stop a running service because you then lose a customer that has a service contract with you.”

The paper describing the work, “A Practical Approach to Operating System Versioning for Existing Systems,” will be presented at next month’s USENIX Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation. The team is now working with several interested parties to discuss potential commercial applications of the work.

“We’re a little bit in a stealth mode at the moment,” says Hurley, “but we’ve had a lot of interest from a whole bunch of different companies and a whole bunch of different sectors.”

“The idea is a way of deploying a new version of a service or a platform without disrupting what is currently in place. So it has a lot of beneficial applications in the real world, and we’re trying to make something that the industry can use.”

The post A New Operating System For An Existing Machine appeared first on salvaste's blog.

A New Operating System For An Existing Machine

A team at the University of Cambridge Computer Lab has successfully installed a new operating system on a machine that would otherwise use a different one. The work is part of a project to find novel ways to deploy software onto the world’s existing infrastructure without disrupting it.

The use of virtual machines means that applications can be delivered with almost no overhead, which is a boon to both the system administrators and the end-users. The team at Cambridge has gone a step further by creating a virtual machine that can run a virtual machine, all on an actual device.

“The idea here is that you could have a set of machines say in a data center,” explains supervisor Dr. William Hurley. “And then a whole different set of machines that are used to, say, do a software update on all the hosts in the data center.”

“The key idea is that you can boot a new operating system with a new kernel for a machine which already has an existing OS on it. No hardware modification is required; you just have a hypervisor that allows a runtime environment – a guest – to run a different OS. The idea is a little bit like running a program on a virtual machine, but a VM within a VM.”

The work builds on a technique presented at the 2007 IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy by Loyola Marymount University’s Dr. Stefan Savage. A system was introduced that allowed users to repeatedly switch between a default OS and a secondary OS running in a virtual machine.

The Cambridge team aims to develop the technique further by applying it to existing infrastructure rather than laboratory conditions while dropping the requirement for a secondary hypervisor on top of the primary one.

“We need a runtime environment to run a guest, and this is a sort of a cross between a hypervisor and a virtual machine monitor,” explains Hurley. “This runs on the bare metal hardware, with no bootloader or other components in the primary boot path. A common hypervisor requires a separate kernel to be booted, but a virtual machine monitor can run a guest within the existing OS.”

“It’s a bit like a very lightweight hypervisor. The basic idea is you would be able to do a software update on a running operating system without actually stopping that operating system. So it has some useful applications there, where you don’t want to stop a running service because you then lose a customer that has a service contract with you.”

The paper describing the work, “A Practical Approach to Operating System Versioning for Existing Systems,” will be presented at next month’s USENIX Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation. The team is now working with several interested parties to discuss potential commercial applications of the work.

“We’re a little bit in a stealth mode at the moment,” says Hurley, “but we’ve had a lot of interest from a whole bunch of different companies and a whole bunch of different sectors.”

“The idea is a way of deploying a new version of a service or a platform without disrupting what is currently in place. So it has a lot of beneficial applications in the real world, and we’re trying to make something that the industry can use.”

The post A New Operating System For An Existing Machine appeared first on salvaste's blog.

October 11

What Tasks Do Most Operating Systems Perform?

Most operating systems perform various tasks, including keeping track of what is on the computer and what is going to be done with the information. Operating systems also allocate system resources for multiple programs to run at once and protect user files from deletion or corruption by other users.

Most modern operating systems include all of these features. Some of these features may not be available in some cases, such as with mobile devices and embedded systems.

Tasks that most operating systems perform include keeping track of what is on the computer and what is going to happen with the information, allocating system resources for multiple programs to run at one time, protecting user files from deletion or corruption by other users, and keeping users from accessing what they should not access.

Keeping Track of What is on the Computer and what Is Going To Be Done With It

The operating system keeps track of what’s going on inside a computer. For example, many programs work together in a given task, such as editing a document. The operating system keeps track of what each program is doing. If one of the programs crashes, the OS restores what other programs are doing before it hits. The OS also identifies what should be done next, such as saving what’s been edited or quitting what has already been held.

It keeps track of what is on the computer and what should be done with what’s on the computer.

Allocating System Resources for Multiple Programs to Run at Once

The operating system allocates system resources, such as processing power and memory, for multiple programs to run at once. For example, running a document editing program while listening to music may be too much strain on the CPU. The OS will allocate CPU processing power to what it thinks is the more important task at hand.

The OS allocates system resources such as processing power and memory for multiple programs to run at once.

Protecting User Files From Deletion or Corruption By Another User

Some operating systems offer what’s known as file protection, keeping user files from deletion or corruption by another user. It’s what keeps what you’ve saved from getting deleted or what you’re working on from getting corrupted, even if someone else is using the computer.

The OS protects what is being used and what has been saved.

The post What Tasks Do Most Operating Systems Perform? appeared first on salvaste's blog.

What Tasks Do Most Operating Systems Perform?

Most operating systems perform various tasks, including keeping track of what is on the computer and what is going to be done with the information. Operating systems also allocate system resources for multiple programs to run at once and protect user files from deletion or corruption by other users.

Most modern operating systems include all of these features. Some of these features may not be available in some cases, such as with mobile devices and embedded systems.

Tasks that most operating systems perform include keeping track of what is on the computer and what is going to happen with the information, allocating system resources for multiple programs to run at one time, protecting user files from deletion or corruption by other users, and keeping users from accessing what they should not access.

Keeping Track of What is on the Computer and what Is Going To Be Done With It

The operating system keeps track of what’s going on inside a computer. For example, many programs work together in a given task, such as editing a document. The operating system keeps track of what each program is doing. If one of the programs crashes, the OS restores what other programs are doing before it hits. The OS also identifies what should be done next, such as saving what’s been edited or quitting what has already been held.

It keeps track of what is on the computer and what should be done with what’s on the computer.

Allocating System Resources for Multiple Programs to Run at Once

The operating system allocates system resources, such as processing power and memory, for multiple programs to run at once. For example, running a document editing program while listening to music may be too much strain on the CPU. The OS will allocate CPU processing power to what it thinks is the more important task at hand.

The OS allocates system resources such as processing power and memory for multiple programs to run at once.

Protecting User Files From Deletion or Corruption By Another User

Some operating systems offer what’s known as file protection, keeping user files from deletion or corruption by another user. It’s what keeps what you’ve saved from getting deleted or what you’re working on from getting corrupted, even if someone else is using the computer.

The OS protects what is being used and what has been saved.

The post What Tasks Do Most Operating Systems Perform? appeared first on salvaste's blog.

October 10

Which Part of the Operating System Directly Interacts With Hardware?

When talking about operating systems, this question might be which part of which specific OS directly interacts with hardware. For example, Windows and BSD both work on x86 computers and interact with hardware through the peripheral component interconnect (PCI) bus, which is a communication channel used to connect computer peripherals to other devices or components inside a computer, but which OS interacts with which hardware through which specific device? It might not be the same for every OS which directly interacts with its own set of hardware.

A computer operating system (OS) is a collection of software that manages computer hardware resources and provides standard services for application software. Operating systems are found on almost any device containing a computer that includes but is not limited to desktops, laptops, smartphones, and smartwatches, which run on what we call a general-purpose operating system.

A computer might include multiple hardware devices which create connections that allow for communication between each other. The previous example of Windows and BSD, which both work with x86, uses PCI as a communication channel that connects computer peripherals to other devices. Which OS uses specific hardware? For one example, PCI was first introduced by Intel in 1993 and supported a maximum data transfer rate of 132 MBs which uses parallel communication, which Windows 10 can utilize at a top speed of 8GB/s for bandwidth which is faster than the USB 3.0, which has a maximum speed of 625 MB/s which means that Windows 10 interacts with hardware through PCI which is better than USB 3.0 which uses serial communication.

Another example, both Windows and Linux can use I2C. This bus includes multiple devices connected to the same two wires, which allows different components in a computer to communicate which other devices. This bus utilizes serial communication, which uses fewer wires to reduce the number of cables and connections, allowing for more efficient data transmission through this bus.

This example shows how Windows and Linux both use connected components such as USB, PCI, I2C, which utilize parallel and serial communication which determine which hardware is used depending on which type of communication is used which allows computers to interact with their multiple components which make up a whole which creates a complete operating system.

This concludes this article; if you have any questions, please leave them in the comments. Thank you for reading, and goodbye!

The post Which Part of the Operating System Directly Interacts With Hardware? appeared first on salvaste's blog.

Which Part of the Operating System Directly Interacts With Hardware?

When talking about operating systems, this question might be which part of which specific OS directly interacts with hardware. For example, Windows and BSD both work on x86 computers and interact with hardware through the peripheral component interconnect (PCI) bus, which is a communication channel used to connect computer peripherals to other devices or components inside a computer, but which OS interacts with which hardware through which specific device? It might not be the same for every OS which directly interacts with its own set of hardware.

A computer operating system (OS) is a collection of software that manages computer hardware resources and provides standard services for application software. Operating systems are found on almost any device containing a computer that includes but is not limited to desktops, laptops, smartphones, and smartwatches, which run on what we call a general-purpose operating system.

A computer might include multiple hardware devices which create connections that allow for communication between each other. The previous example of Windows and BSD, which both work with x86, uses PCI as a communication channel that connects computer peripherals to other devices. Which OS uses specific hardware? For one example, PCI was first introduced by Intel in 1993 and supported a maximum data transfer rate of 132 MBs which uses parallel communication, which Windows 10 can utilize at a top speed of 8GB/s for bandwidth which is faster than the USB 3.0, which has a maximum speed of 625 MB/s which means that Windows 10 interacts with hardware through PCI which is better than USB 3.0 which uses serial communication.

Another example, both Windows and Linux can use I2C. This bus includes multiple devices connected to the same two wires, which allows different components in a computer to communicate which other devices. This bus utilizes serial communication, which uses fewer wires to reduce the number of cables and connections, allowing for more efficient data transmission through this bus.

This example shows how Windows and Linux both use connected components such as USB, PCI, I2C, which utilize parallel and serial communication which determine which hardware is used depending on which type of communication is used which allows computers to interact with their multiple components which make up a whole which creates a complete operating system.

This concludes this article; if you have any questions, please leave them in the comments. Thank you for reading, and goodbye!

The post Which Part of the Operating System Directly Interacts With Hardware? appeared first on salvaste's blog.

October 09

Xfinity X1 Entertainment Operating System – what is it?

The Xfinity X1 entertainment operating system (ooh, what a catchy name) is Comcast’s new platform, which they have been developing since 2010 using the Open Source Linux Platform as their base. This allows them to have multiple products that can run on their version of Linux. Along with this, what it means is that after the OSP has been built and deployed to all of their devices (or what they call “gateways”), Comcast will continue to develop and fix bugs on the OSP, but what we pay for is the device/applications each gateway can offer.

The Xfinity X1 operating system powers the Xfinity x1 cable boxes (gateways) and its applications such as Netflix, YouTube, etc.

You can think of it like this: Apple has iOS, Google has Android. Comcast has X1. Calling it their platform allows them to add new features when they please and whatnot.

You can also think of the Xfinity x1 cable box as a computer, just with what is installed, what you use, and what hardware it runs on is what they have deemed “safe” for you to view TV on. Comcast estimates that more than 60% of its customers have been using the new x1 platform in recent months.

What is the Xfinity X1 Entertainment Operating System?

Simply what it says is a SYSTEM that combines what your cable box does with what’s happening outside. Comcast has been using their set-top boxes for years now; what makes them different from all the rest is that they run an OSP (operating system) that allows common online apps to be used without the need of a computer what Comcast has dubbed a “second screen.”

They have also said that if they decide what is best for us and what the TV industry is going through in the future, they can update their OSP instead of making you buy new hardware. What this means is that Comcast can use your Cable Box as a tracking device to what you watch and what you don’t (for what we can assume is to target better what they advertise), along with what hardware you own and what websites you go on, though under the guise of “helping” make sure their services are compatible.

What does it mean for users and the future?

Well, what this means is that even though you have a computer at home or whatnot with what you think are “necessary” apps installed on them, Comcast’s OSP has most of what you need.

Combined with features present in Xfinity mobile, it means that Comcast will have to track what you watch, what you do online, what hardware you use, and what you purchase.

It allows the X1 to be connected with what they call “home security,” which in reality can be used for spying on their customers to see what they are doing inside their homes if the X1 mobile service is what they use.

It also has what can be considered a “parental control” feature that won’t allow kids to watch what Comcast deems inappropriate. Still, in reality, it’s what they want you to think to make you buy Xfinity mobile services for your family.

Comcast combined what is called a voice remote what allows them to make calls with what they say is “true” two-way communication, what they call Xfinity Voice. What it means is that Comcast can now track what you watch, what you do online, what devices you own through the option of carrier billing on your phone bill, as well as what you purchase and what your demographics are through what they call “targeted advertising” all without you even knowing what is going on.

The X1 also has what can be considered a health feature, what Comcast calls Xfinity Health. It means that Comcast wants to track what we do as we are in a clinical setting and what hardware we have that they deem “necessary” to what is needed to be healthy.

The X1 also has what Comcast calls a Wi-Fi Hotspot. What it means is that Comcast can track what you do online even if you don’t have their services meaning they know what websites you visit, what apps are on your phone, what files are being shared, what hardware you have, what websites you visit.

They also claim what they call Cloud DVR. What it means is that Comcast can go through what you watch when even when it’s not at home, something that could be considered illegal under the guise of “combating piracy,” but what in reality is what will allow Comcast to see what you watch what you download what you do online.

The post Xfinity X1 Entertainment Operating System – what is it? appeared first on salvaste's blog.

Xfinity X1 Entertainment Operating System – what is it?

The Xfinity X1 entertainment operating system (ooh, what a catchy name) is Comcast’s new platform, which they have been developing since 2010 using the Open Source Linux Platform as their base. This allows them to have multiple products that can run on their version of Linux. Along with this, what it means is that after the OSP has been built and deployed to all of their devices (or what they call “gateways”), Comcast will continue to develop and fix bugs on the OSP, but what we pay for is the device/applications each gateway can offer.

The Xfinity X1 operating system powers the Xfinity x1 cable boxes (gateways) and its applications such as Netflix, YouTube, etc.

You can think of it like this: Apple has iOS, Google has Android. Comcast has X1. Calling it their platform allows them to add new features when they please and whatnot.

You can also think of the Xfinity x1 cable box as a computer, just with what is installed, what you use, and what hardware it runs on is what they have deemed “safe” for you to view TV on. Comcast estimates that more than 60% of its customers have been using the new x1 platform in recent months.

What is the Xfinity X1 Entertainment Operating System?

Simply what it says is a SYSTEM that combines what your cable box does with what’s happening outside. Comcast has been using their set-top boxes for years now; what makes them different from all the rest is that they run an OSP (operating system) that allows common online apps to be used without the need of a computer what Comcast has dubbed a “second screen.”

They have also said that if they decide what is best for us and what the TV industry is going through in the future, they can update their OSP instead of making you buy new hardware. What this means is that Comcast can use your Cable Box as a tracking device to what you watch and what you don’t (for what we can assume is to target better what they advertise), along with what hardware you own and what websites you go on, though under the guise of “helping” make sure their services are compatible.

What does it mean for users and the future?

Well, what this means is that even though you have a computer at home or whatnot with what you think are “necessary” apps installed on them, Comcast’s OSP has most of what you need.

Combined with features present in Xfinity mobile, it means that Comcast will have to track what you watch, what you do online, what hardware you use, and what you purchase.

It allows the X1 to be connected with what they call “home security,” which in reality can be used for spying on their customers to see what they are doing inside their homes if the X1 mobile service is what they use.

It also has what can be considered a “parental control” feature that won’t allow kids to watch what Comcast deems inappropriate. Still, in reality, it’s what they want you to think to make you buy Xfinity mobile services for your family.

Comcast combined what is called a voice remote what allows them to make calls with what they say is “true” two-way communication, what they call Xfinity Voice. What it means is that Comcast can now track what you watch, what you do online, what devices you own through the option of carrier billing on your phone bill, as well as what you purchase and what your demographics are through what they call “targeted advertising” all without you even knowing what is going on.

The X1 also has what can be considered a health feature, what Comcast calls Xfinity Health. It means that Comcast wants to track what we do as we are in a clinical setting and what hardware we have that they deem “necessary” to what is needed to be healthy.

The X1 also has what Comcast calls a Wi-Fi Hotspot. What it means is that Comcast can track what you do online even if you don’t have their services meaning they know what websites you visit, what apps are on your phone, what files are being shared, what hardware you have, what websites you visit.

They also claim what they call Cloud DVR. What it means is that Comcast can go through what you watch when even when it’s not at home, something that could be considered illegal under the guise of “combating piracy,” but what in reality is what will allow Comcast to see what you watch what you download what you do online.

The post Xfinity X1 Entertainment Operating System – what is it? appeared first on salvaste's blog.

October 08

Why Memtest86 Don’t Require An Operating System Support To Run

Memtest86 has both GUI and CLI versions of their tools. It seems that the new Memtest86+ v4.20 is only available for the CLI version while the older Memtest86 3.5.0 is available with both versions. The difference between these two versions is discussed in the following sections, but before that let’s have a quick look at the software architecture.

If you take a look at Memtest86 source code, you can find that it is a console mode application written in C language and there are no dependencies to any operating system libraries, so running from DOSbox/Win98 boot disks is possible. But if you have ever tried to run downloaded binaries on real hardware, you must have realized that it will not run from floppy disks or flash drives.

The reason behind this is that Memtest86 binary images are compressed using the UPX compression utility, a widely used executable packer that removes all data from binaries files except code and relocation data. It was designed primarily for executables but it also works with other file types.

In the older versions of Memtest86, there is a small ELF loader program at the DOS stub code section which loads all binary data from floppy disks when you boot from them and pass control to it. ELF (Extended Executable File Format) is used in Linux systems for executable files and shared libraries. Now if you use the GUI version of Memtest86, it will provide an option to directly pass control to the binary image file it creates during installation. Updating Memtest86 using official Windows packages is another way to get a newer version as older versions are not available now.

However, if you try to use any one of these solutions on real hardware for floppy booting or as a replacement for the DOS stub code, you will be greeted with an error message as no operating system is loaded. This is why Memtest86 now comes as a console application only and there are no floppy images available.

User-mode applications in Windows NT-based systems must have a file called application configuration (app.cfg) in their directory for configuration settings. But if you try to open the app.cfg file in Memtest86 directory, you will find that it doesn’t contain any configuration settings but just a list of files needed by Memtest86 shown below:

  • Configuration File for MemTest86 v4.20
  • !!FileList_632FEA54
  • !!FileList_632FEA58
  • !!FileList_632FEA5C
  • !!FILELIST BEGIN:VCARD
  • !URL,http://www.memtest86.com/,0,VCARD
  • !URL,mailto:support@memtest86.com,0,AUTO

The post Why Memtest86 Don’t Require An Operating System Support To Run appeared first on salvaste's blog.

Why Memtest86 Don’t Require An Operating System Support To Run

Memtest86 has both GUI and CLI versions of their tools. It seems that the new Memtest86+ v4.20 is only available for the CLI version while the older Memtest86 3.5.0 is available with both versions. The difference between these two versions is discussed in the following sections, but before that let’s have a quick look at the software architecture.

If you take a look at Memtest86 source code, you can find that it is a console mode application written in C language and there are no dependencies to any operating system libraries, so running from DOSbox/Win98 boot disks is possible. But if you have ever tried to run downloaded binaries on real hardware, you must have realized that it will not run from floppy disks or flash drives.

The reason behind this is that Memtest86 binary images are compressed using the UPX compression utility, a widely used executable packer that removes all data from binaries files except code and relocation data. It was designed primarily for executables but it also works with other file types.

In the older versions of Memtest86, there is a small ELF loader program at the DOS stub code section which loads all binary data from floppy disks when you boot from them and pass control to it. ELF (Extended Executable File Format) is used in Linux systems for executable files and shared libraries. Now if you use the GUI version of Memtest86, it will provide an option to directly pass control to the binary image file it creates during installation. Updating Memtest86 using official Windows packages is another way to get a newer version as older versions are not available now.

However, if you try to use any one of these solutions on real hardware for floppy booting or as a replacement for the DOS stub code, you will be greeted with an error message as no operating system is loaded. This is why Memtest86 now comes as a console application only and there are no floppy images available.

User-mode applications in Windows NT-based systems must have a file called application configuration (app.cfg) in their directory for configuration settings. But if you try to open the app.cfg file in Memtest86 directory, you will find that it doesn’t contain any configuration settings but just a list of files needed by Memtest86 shown below:

  • Configuration File for MemTest86 v4.20
  • !!FileList_632FEA54
  • !!FileList_632FEA58
  • !!FileList_632FEA5C
  • !!FILELIST BEGIN:VCARD
  • !URL,http://www.memtest86.com/,0,VCARD
  • !URL,mailto:support@memtest86.com,0,AUTO

The post Why Memtest86 Don’t Require An Operating System Support To Run appeared first on salvaste's blog.

October 07

Where is an Operating System Stored?

An operating system is stored in different ways depending on the type of microprocessor it was written for. A processor has a number of registers which are very fast memory locations within the processor itself so that it can work very fast. Some examples include:

  • The program counter keeps track of where the next machine code instruction is to be read.
  • The stack pointer keeps track of the current top of the stack, and the base pointer keeps track of where in memory it is pointing to.
  • General Purpose Registers such as ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit), etc…

Most modern Operating Systems are written for a 32bit microprocessor because they use 4 Byte words, which means they can address up to 2^32 Bytes of memory. However, there are microprocessor manufacturers that make 16bit processors and even 8bit processors..

Main Memory – These are all the RAM chips within your computer.

  • Most modern Operating Systems are written for a 32bit Microprocessor, but older ones were written for an 8bit processor.

ROM – These are Read Only Memory Chips, meaning they can’t be written to! Some examples include:

  • BIOS Chip in your computer contains the machine code instructions for how to initialize all hardware components when you first turn it on.
  • Wireless LAN Cards have a Machine Code program that is executed when the wireless network card is plugged in, allowing it to connect to a Wireless Access Point.

Flash Memory – This is similar to ROM because you can’t write to it. The only difference is that the microprocessor can read from and write to this type of memory. Some examples include:

  • USB Pen drives have this type of memory, allowing them to be plugged in and accessible by your computer.
  • SSD’s which are Solid State Drives have this type of memory, allowing very fast access times because there are no moving parts unlike traditional spinning hard disk drives.

Virtual Memory

This is a representation of the Operating System itself that allows it to appear as though it has more memory than it does. For example, if the Operating System had 500MB of RAM and you opened 10 programs, it might look as though there is 6000MB of RAM in total due to the virtual memory. This allows more programs to be open at once without running out of physical memory.

What are the steps for booting an operating system?

When you turn on your computer it goes through a number of steps to initialize the hardware and start executing code.

  • Power On Self Test (POST) – CPU, RAM, etc… will be tested for any errors.
  • BIOS Chip – The BIOS chip contains machine code instructions for bootstrapping everything else within the computer. It will initialize the computer hardware to a known state, load the operating system(s) from disk into memory and then start executing it.
  • Boot Loader – Once the Operating System is loaded into Memory, it begins executing its boot loader which loads itself into memory using one of various methods.
  • Operating System Initialization – The Operating System itself will initialize all of its components including device drivers. It may also perform tasks such as checking for new updates to the operating system if it is a more modern one with an updater built in.
  • Running Applications – At this point you can run applications within the operating system!

The post Where is an Operating System Stored? appeared first on salvaste's blog.

Where is an Operating System Stored?

An operating system is stored in different ways depending on the type of microprocessor it was written for. A processor has a number of registers which are very fast memory locations within the processor itself so that it can work very fast. Some examples include:

  • The program counter keeps track of where the next machine code instruction is to be read.
  • The stack pointer keeps track of the current top of the stack, and the base pointer keeps track of where in memory it is pointing to.
  • General Purpose Registers such as ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit), etc…

Most modern Operating Systems are written for a 32bit microprocessor because they use 4 Byte words, which means they can address up to 2^32 Bytes of memory. However, there are microprocessor manufacturers that make 16bit processors and even 8bit processors..

Main Memory – These are all the RAM chips within your computer.

  • Most modern Operating Systems are written for a 32bit Microprocessor, but older ones were written for an 8bit processor.

ROM – These are Read Only Memory Chips, meaning they can’t be written to! Some examples include:

  • BIOS Chip in your computer contains the machine code instructions for how to initialize all hardware components when you first turn it on.
  • Wireless LAN Cards have a Machine Code program that is executed when the wireless network card is plugged in, allowing it to connect to a Wireless Access Point.

Flash Memory – This is similar to ROM because you can’t write to it. The only difference is that the microprocessor can read from and write to this type of memory. Some examples include:

  • USB Pen drives have this type of memory, allowing them to be plugged in and accessible by your computer.
  • SSD’s which are Solid State Drives have this type of memory, allowing very fast access times because there are no moving parts unlike traditional spinning hard disk drives.

Virtual Memory

This is a representation of the Operating System itself that allows it to appear as though it has more memory than it does. For example, if the Operating System had 500MB of RAM and you opened 10 programs, it might look as though there is 6000MB of RAM in total due to the virtual memory. This allows more programs to be open at once without running out of physical memory.

What are the steps for booting an operating system?

When you turn on your computer it goes through a number of steps to initialize the hardware and start executing code.

  • Power On Self Test (POST) – CPU, RAM, etc… will be tested for any errors.
  • BIOS Chip – The BIOS chip contains machine code instructions for bootstrapping everything else within the computer. It will initialize the computer hardware to a known state, load the operating system(s) from disk into memory and then start executing it.
  • Boot Loader – Once the Operating System is loaded into Memory, it begins executing its boot loader which loads itself into memory using one of various methods.
  • Operating System Initialization – The Operating System itself will initialize all of its components including device drivers. It may also perform tasks such as checking for new updates to the operating system if it is a more modern one with an updater built in.
  • Running Applications – At this point you can run applications within the operating system!

The post Where is an Operating System Stored? appeared first on salvaste's blog.

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